NOTICIAS: Tutankam贸n muri贸 a causa de Malaria y una dolencia

Sabemos muy poco sobre la vida de Tutankhamon. Ni siquiera los expertos conocen con exactitud qui茅n fue. Aunque gracias al descubrimiento de su tumba en 1922, hemos logrado conocer algo m谩s sobre su entorno.

NOTICIAS: Tutankam贸n muri贸 a causa de Malaria y una dolencia

Notapor Marta_Nefertiti » 18 Feb 2010, 18:33

http://www.elperiodico.com/default.asp? ... _PK=687964

隆Incre铆ble!, Zahi Zawass y un estudio han confirmado que el ni帽o-rey muri贸 por una dol茅ncia 贸sea y tambi茅n por una terrible Malaria.
Tambi茅n han confirmado que no hay ning煤na duda que Akhenat贸n fu茅 el padre de el.

:(( Pobre Tutankamon, muri贸 de malaria...

:))) pero lo que me consuela esque la teoria de que lo asesinaron queda descartada.
Avatar de Usuario
Marta_Nefertiti
Docto en Egiptolog铆a
Docto en Egiptolog铆a
 
Mensajes: 81
Registrado: 20 Nov 2009, 22:29

Re: NOTICIAS: Tutankam贸n muri贸 a cuasa de Malaria y una dolencia

Notapor Santiago Ferro » 18 Feb 2010, 21:59

Para una m谩s completa informaci贸n de todos los foreros os copio y pego el resumen del art铆culo publicado en la revista del J.A.M.A. (Journal of American Medical Association), una de las revista m茅dicas de mayor prestigio y seriedad en todo el mundo. En ella solamente se publican art铆culos verdaderamente cient铆ficos que superan todas las revisiones de los respectivos comit茅s. Una persona que publique algo en el J.A.M.A. da a su curriculum un marchamo de la m谩s alta categor铆a y credibilidad en el mundo cient铆fico m茅dico. Con esto, se puede decir que el contenido de la publicaci贸n raya en el 100% de la credibilidad.

Como vereis, en el art铆culo no se dice que Tutankhamon sea hijo de Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton) sino de la momia del KV55 y de la de KV35XL. Queda por tanto abierto todo el camino a los debates sobre la identidad de estos personajes. M谩s adelante, si lo consigo, os pondr茅 el art铆culo completo.

L谩stima que est谩 en ingl茅s, pero creo que con un peque帽o esfuerzo todos seremos capaces de entender lo que dice. Y, si no a molestar al amigo que sabe ingl茅s para que nos lo traduzca.

Saludos.

Santiago

El Resumen tomado directamente de la revista en Internet:

Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun's Family
Zahi Hawass, PhD; Yehia Z. Gad, MD; Somaia Ismail, PhD; Rabab Khairat, MSc; Dina Fathalla, MSc; Naglaa Hasan, MSc; Amal Ahmed, BPharm; Hisham Elleithy, MA; Markus Ball, MSc; Fawzi Gaballah, PhD; Sally Wasef, MSc; Mohamed Fateen, MD; Hany Amer, PhD; Paul Gostner, MD; Ashraf Selim, MD; Albert Zink, PhD; Carsten M. Pusch, PhD

JAMA. 2010;303(7):638-647.

Context The New Kingdom in ancient Egypt, comprising the 18th, 19th, and 20th dynasties, spanned the mid-16th to the early 11th centuries BC. The late 18th dynasty, which included the reigns of pharaohs Akhenaten and Tutankhamun, was an extraordinary time. The identification of a number of royal mummies from this era, the exact relationships between some members of the royal family, and possible illnesses and causes of death have been matters of debate.

Objectives To introduce a new approach to molecular and medical Egyptology, to determine familial relationships among 11 royal mummies of the New Kingdom, and to search for pathological features attributable to possible murder, consanguinity, inherited disorders, and infectious diseases.

Design From September 2007 to October 2009, royal mummies underwent detailed anthropological, radiological, and genetic studies as part of the King Tutankhamun Family Project. Mummies distinct from Tutankhamun's immediate lineage served as the genetic and morphological reference. To authenticate DNA results, analytical steps were repeated and independently replicated in a second ancient DNA laboratory staffed by a separate group of personnel. Eleven royal mummies dating from circa 1410-1324 BC and suspected of being kindred of Tutankhamun and 5 royal mummies dating to an earlier period, circa 1550-1479 BC, were examined.

Main Outcome Measures Microsatellite-based haplotypes in the mummies, generational segregation of alleles within possible pedigree variants, and correlation of identified diseases with individual age, archeological evidence, and the written historical record.

Results Genetic fingerprinting allowed the construction of a 5-generation pedigree of Tutankhamun's immediate lineage. The KV55 mummy and KV35YL were identified as the parents of Tutankhamun. No signs of gynecomastia and craniosynostoses (eg, Antley-Bixler syndrome) or Marfan syndrome were found, but an accumulation of malformations in Tutankhamun's family was evident. Several pathologies including K枚hler disease II were diagnosed in Tutankhamun; none alone would have caused death. Genetic testing for STEVOR, AMA1, or MSP1 genes specific for Plasmodium falciparum revealed indications of malaria tropica in 4 mummies, including Tutankhamun鈥檚. These results suggest avascular bone necrosis in conjunction with the malarial infection as the most likely cause of death in Tutankhamun. Walking impairment and malarial disease sustained by Tutankhamun is supported by the discovery of canes and an afterlife pharmacy in his tomb.

Conclusion Using a multidisciplinary scientific approach, we showed the feasibility of gathering data on Pharaonic kinship and diseases and speculated about individual causes of death.
Avatar de Usuario
Santiago Ferro
Docto en Egiptolog铆a
Docto en Egiptolog铆a
 
Mensajes: 208
Registrado: 24 May 2009, 00:20
Ubicaci贸n: Barcelona (Catalunya - Espa帽a)

Re: NOTICIAS: Tutankam贸n muri贸 a cuasa de Malaria y una dolencia

Notapor Alya » 18 Feb 2010, 22:08

En la introducci贸n que t煤 cuelgas no dicen que sea Ajenaton, pero luego en el cuerpo del escrito -que yo tengo, as铆 como el Anexo que han hecho del texto a parte- s铆 que lo identifican como el cuerpo de la KV55 mientras la identidad de la madre de Tutanjamon y de la de la madre de sus dos hijas permanecen como desconocidas hasta que se les realicen m谩s estudios.
Avatar de Usuario
Alya
Docto en Egiptolog铆a
Docto en Egiptolog铆a
 
Mensajes: 796
Registrado: 15 May 2005, 01:03

Re: NOTICIAS: Tutankam贸n muri贸 a cuasa de Malaria y una dolencia

Notapor Santiago Ferro » 18 Feb 2010, 22:34

Querida Alya:
Lo que he colgado es una reproducci贸n literal del JAMA. Solo me permit铆 dar negritas a la frase clave.
Como ves, en ning煤n momento identifican a las momias de KV55 o de KV35XL.

Ser铆a interesante que nos hicieras compartir el escrito que tienes, obviamente si tiene la autoridad del JAMA y los autores del art铆culo. Pues especulaciones hay y habr谩 de todos los colores. Creo que nos cansaremos de las mismas.

Saludos,

Santiago
Avatar de Usuario
Santiago Ferro
Docto en Egiptolog铆a
Docto en Egiptolog铆a
 
Mensajes: 208
Registrado: 24 May 2009, 00:20
Ubicaci贸n: Barcelona (Catalunya - Espa帽a)

Re: NOTICIAS: Tutankam贸n muri贸 a cuasa de Malaria y una dolencia

Notapor Alya » 19 Feb 2010, 00:23

A ver, t煤 has colgado la introducci贸n del art铆culo, y yo te estoy diciendo que en el cuerpo del art铆culo y en el anexo al mismo -y con eso me refiero al art铆culo que ha salido en el JAMA, por supuesto, y no a ninguna otra interpretaci贸n de terceros- s铆 que se identifica el cuerpo de la KV55 con Ajenaton (hay que fijarse un poquito en lo que escribe la gente antes de dar contestaci贸n).
En el propio texto se publica un 谩rbol geneal贸gico de cinco generaciones (desde Tyuyu y Yuya, bisabuelos de Tutanjamon, hasta los fetos de sus hijas), en el que se reitera a Ajenaton como el cuerpo de la KV55 y padre de Tutajamon, as铆 como permanecen todav铆a sin identificar su madre y la madre de sus hijas.

Dejo copia del resultado del an谩lisis gen茅tico familiar, que aparece en el Anexo, as铆 como de los otros puntos en el texto principal en los que aparece tal identificaci贸n:

KV55 Identified as Akhenaten. See eAppendix for additional commentary.

However, putative breasts in Tutankhamun and his father Akhenaten (KV55) cannot be determined, because KV55 is a mummified skeleton and Tutankhamun lacks the frontal part of the chest wall.

Instead, Akhenaten has an index of 81.0 and Tutankhamun an index of 83.9, indicating brachycephaly.

Antley-Bixler syndrome is also excluded in Tutankhamun and Akhenaten because their brachycephaly is not attributable to craniosynostoses, and further signs of Antley-Bixler or other syndromes are missing or unspecific.

Akhenaten (KV55)

These include KV35EL, who is Tiye, mother of Akhenaten and grandmother of Tutankhamun, and the KV55mummy,who is most probably Akhenaten, father of Tutankhamun (Figure 2, eAppendix, and online interactive kinship analysis and pedigree).

Therefore, the particular artistic presentation of persons in the Amarna period is confirmed as a royally decreed style most probably related
to the religious reforms of Akhenaten. It is unlikely that either Tutankhamun or Akhenaten actually displayed a significantly bizarre or feminine physique.(...)Thus, especially in the absence of morphological justification, Akhenaten鈥檚 choice of a 鈥済rotesque鈥 style becomes even more significant.

Akhenaten (KV55): Malformations: Cleft palate, scoliosis. Other pathologies and diseases: Osteoma in the maxillary sinus, femoral osseous
collapse, or bone fibroma.


eAppendix RESULTS
Kinship Analyses. The obtained short tandem repeat (STR) profiles (Figure 1) revealed a high degree of half-allele
sharing and segregation through family generations, suggesting a close relation of all investigated mummies. To set up a
multigeneration pedigree, the probabilities of each single parent to child relation and family trios (mother, father and
child) were calculated by using the GenoProof庐 software. The statistical analysis revealed that the mummy KV55 is
most probably the father of Tutankhamun (probability of 99.99999981%), and KV35 Younger Lady could be identified
as his mother (99.99999997%). The testing of Amenhotep III as father of Tutankhamun and KV35 Elder Lady as
putative mother were both negative owing to mismatching alleles. Amenhotep III could be clearly identified as father of
KV55, showing a paternal probability of 99.99999999%. The results demonstrate that the mummy in KV55 is the son
of Amenhotep III and father of Tutankhamun, leading to the assumption (also supported by the radiological findings)
that the mummy can be identified as Akhenaten.
It could be further shown that Tutankhamun is the most likely father of
the 2 fetuses found in KV62 (Fetus 1: 99.97992885%, Fetus 2: 99.99999299%). The degree of shared alleles between
the female mummy KV21A and Fetus 1 and Fetus 2 points toward a possible identification of the mummy as
Ankhensenamun, the mother of both fetuses and wife of Tutankhamun. Further data are needed because the incomplete
data set does not allow a clear statistical evaluation. The family pedigree was completed by the identification of KV35
Elder Lady as a daughter of Yuya and Thuya (99.99999929%), indicating that she could be Queen Tiye. This was
confirmed by the calculation of the kinship of Amenhotep III and KV35 Elder Lady as father and mother of KV55,
which revealed a probability of 99.99999964%. Any other hypothetic family relations such as Younger Lady as mother
of KV55 were statistically withdrawn. Based on the partial Y-chromosomal information, on the amount of autosomal
half-allele sharing (Figure 1) and family trio likelihood calculation, we reconstructed the most plausible royal pedigree.
The full relationships between all mummies are shown in a 5-generation pedigree (Figure 2).
Avatar de Usuario
Alya
Docto en Egiptolog铆a
Docto en Egiptolog铆a
 
Mensajes: 796
Registrado: 15 May 2005, 01:03

Siguiente

Volver a Foro sobre Tutankhamon



驴Qui茅n est谩 conectado?

Usuarios navegando por este Foro: No hay usuarios registrados visitando el Foro y 1 invitado

cron
"Amigos de la Egiptología", es una idea original de Víctor Rivas (Barcelona, España)
© 1996 - Reservados todos los derechos Aviso Legal - Powered by phpBB